My father died in 1926, my mother and step-father fled to Belgium and later France. They were captured by the Nazis and were killed at Auschwitz.
My sister Hilde and her husband, left for Brazil in 1939. I acquired a false visa for Haiti for 1000 German marks. In 1940, by herself, I fled Germany going by train to Russia, Manchuria, Korea. I sailed to Japan then to the United States. I was not allowed to enter the port of Los Angeles as I did not have a visa to enter America. I next went to Panama where I had a transit visa and stayed there for one year. I took my record player with me and during my journey out of Germany, I was able to entertain people and make friends.
I had relatives in Nashville, Tennessee who signed an affidavit allowing me to enter the US and I settled in New York. I married another refugee who I met in Panama. In 1942, my husband and I moved to Detroit for work.