In 1943, I was taken to the Czestochowa Ghetto, a large Ghetto. In 1944, I was taken to a small ghetto in Rakov. I worked in a steel mill and made railroad tracks, platinum for bullet casings and wire.
In January 15, 1945, I was on the last train to Buchenwald before the Russians came. I was in Buchenwald for one week when I overheard some Germans speaking that they need men to work. I volunteered and was transferred to the Strasbourg salt mine until the end of April, 1945.
The Americans and Russians were closing in on both sides so the Germans marched us towards the Americans, American soldiers ask questions first then shoot, the Russians shoot and then ask questions. If a prisoner fell down, they were shot.
On May 8th at 3 pm, we were resting on the edge of a forest near a German town. The townspeople came out and told the German soldiers “What are you doing here; the town has already been taken.” So the Germans ran into the woods, changed into civilian clothes, and ran away.
I went back to Czestochowa in October/November, 1945 to see if anyone was still there. “Are you still alive?” was the greeting that I got from my former neighbors. No one was there so I registered with the Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) and headed to Germany.