My father died before war. He was a soldier during WWI and was shot by an Austrian soldier when I was only 1 year old.
My brother Mendel lived out of town and died before the war of sunstroke at the age of 26.
After my father’s death, because we were impoverished, my family lived in the basement of a synagogue.
Before the Germans came, I was a soldier in the Polish army. In 1943, when the Germans came to Tluste, I was taken to a labor camp, Borki Wilkie, near Tarnipol, working building a railroad. While I was in the labor camp, the Germans surrounded the Jewish inhabitants of our town and took everybody to the Jewish cemetery. Everyone was shot and killed including my mother and my brothers.
Everyday in the labor camp, they took a few people out and killed them. A Ukrainian soldier told me that in a week or two, they were going to kill all 900 of us in our camp. I told people about what I had heard but no one believed me. That night, at 4:00 in the morning I escaped to a nearby forest. I stayed in the woods. Later, the Russian army approached, I volunteered to join them. For two years, I had been a soldier in the Polish army.