Experience: Muhldorf

Simon Binke
David Kahan
Ted Pilcowitz
Simon Schwartzberg

“In mid-1944, the SS established the Mühldorf camp complex in Bavaria as a satellite system of the Dachau concentration camp to provide labor for an underground installation for the production of the Messerschmitt 262 (Me-262), a jet fighter designed to challenge Allied air superiority over Germany. Between July 1944 and April 1945, when the U.S. Army overran the area, more than 8,000 prisoners had been deported to the main camp at Mettenheim and to its subcamps. 

“According to the account of a prisoner who turned over the camp's administrative files to American authorities, the Mettenheim camp held some 2,000 inmates, a nearby women's camp 500 persons, the “forest camps” (Waldlager) about 2,250 male and female inmates, while two other camps held a total of 550 persons. Most of the prisoners were Hungarian Jews, but there were also Jews from Greece, France, and Italy as well as political prisoners from Russia, Poland, Germany, and Serbia. The surrounding area also contained numerous forced labor and prisoner-of-war camps to supply workers for the factory. 

“Conditions at the Mühldorf complex were dismal. As at the Kaufering camps, the SS guards carried out “selections” at the Mühldorf complex in the fall of 1944, deporting hundreds of sick and disabled inmates to the gas chambers at Auschwitz. It is estimated that more than half of the prisoners held there perished following their deportation to the Auschwitz-Birkenau killing center or died on site from overwork, abuse, shootings, and disease. Prisoners in the “forest camps V and VI” (Waldlager V and VI), located near the town of Ampfing, were housed in earthen huts, barracks partially submerged in the ground with soil-covered roofs designed to camouflage the structures from Allied aerial reconnaissance. Prisoners frequently worked 10- to 12-hour days hauling heavy bags of cement and carrying out other arduous construction tasks. 

“In late April, as the U.S. Army approached the camps, the SS guards evacuated some 3,600 prisoners from the camp on death marches.”

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 
“Mühldorf,” Holocaust Encyclopedia.
Accessed on 6/7/11.

Forced laborers build the south wall of the foundation of the new Dachau satellite camp of Weingut I in Mühldorf. Germany, 1944.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Photo Archives.
Accessed on 6/7/11.